Animal by-products (AHP) are any part of an animal or any material of animal origin that is unfit for human consumption. The issue of their classification, marking and conditions for obtaining appropriate authorizations for storage and transport are specified in Regulation (EC) No. 1069/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 and Commission Regulation (EU) No. 142/2011 of 25 February 2011. Standardization of methods of transport , processing and disposal of animal by-products is due to the fact that they are treated as posing a threat to human and animal health. In Poland, the Veterinary Inspection is responsible for controlling animal waste.
UPPZ categorization of animal by-products
Regulation 1069/2009 indicates three main categories of APPZ, each of which is associated with a different degree of risk that animal by-products may pose to human and animal health.
Category 1 includes, for example:
- Whole animals and all their parts, including hides and skins: animals detected or suspected of being infected with TSE; pets, circuses or zoo animals; wild animals suspected of being infected with infectious diseases that can be transmitted to humans or animals; animals containing the so-called material of particular risk (e.g. skull with brain and eyes, intestines, spleen)
- By-products originating from animals subjected to illegal treatments or containing residues of other substances and substances contaminating the environment (e.g. veterinary medicines), if such substances are present in quantities exceeding the levels permitted by Community legislation
- Produkty odzwierzęce, zebrane podczas oczyszczania ścieków z przedsiębiorstw lub zakładów,
- Expired food from international transport
- Mixtures of Category 1 materials with Category 2 or 3 materials or both.
The regulation classifies: into category 2:
- Manure and the contents of the digestive tract of animals
- Animal by-products that contain legally permitted substances or contaminants, but in quantities exceeding permissible standards
- Animal by-products contain foreign bodies and are therefore unsuitable for human consumption
- Whole animals or parts thereof not meeting the requirements of Category 1, including: animals that have died for any reason other than being slaughtered or killed for human consumption (including animals killed for disease control purposes); fetuses; embryos; poultry died in the shell
- Mixtures of UPPZ materials from category 2 with materials from category 3
Category 3 includes the following animal by-products:
- Carcasses or parts of slaughtered animals or, in the case of game animals, whole or parts of slaughtered animals, fit for human consumption in accordance with the provisions in force, but not intended for human consumption for commercial reasons
- Poultry heads
- Hides and skins, including scraps and trimmings, antlers, feet - applies to animals other than ruminants requiring testing for TSE and ruminants in which tests have not shown the presence of TSE disease
- Animal by-products from poultry and lagomorphs slaughtered on farm, if they did not show any symptoms of disease that could be transmitted to humans or animals
- Animal products from food production: defatted bones, greaves and sediment from centrifuges or separators obtained in the milk processing process
- Blood, placenta, wool, feathers, hair, horns, hoof trimmings and raw milk from live or dead animals that have not shown any signs of disease transmissible through this product to humans or animals
- By-products of aquatic animals and parts of aquatic animals, except marine mammals, which have not shown any signs of disease communicable to humans or animals
- Shells and shells of crustaceans and molluscs with soft tissue or meat, eggs, egg by-products
- Adipose tissue from animals which have not shown any signs of disease communicable to humans or animals through the material, slaughtered in a slaughterhouse and found fit for slaughter for human consumption following ante-mortem inspection in accordance with Community rules
- Catering waste, not included in category 1
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Categories of animal by-products and their use
Appropriate categorization of UPPZ is also important when using or removing it. Articles focus on these issues. 12-14 of the Regulation mentioned at the beginning.
For example, Category 1 materials, if considered waste, are disposed of by incineration, may also be processed by pressure sterilization in an approved facility or buried in an approved landfill (this is how catering waste from means of international transport is managed).
Category 1 material that can be reused has its use as a fuel for combustion after processing (or without processing). It can also be used to produce derivative products, such as medical devices, medicinal products or veterinary medicinal products.
Category 2 material, if treated as waste, follows the same path as category 1 material. However, as a component of derived products, it is used in the production of organic fertilizers or soil improvers. It is often also used without processing (in which case it must be approved for such a form of use after prior approval that it does not pose a risk of spreading a serious infectious disease; this applies primarily to manure, food separated from the digestive tract, milk and milk-based products). . This animal product can also be pickled, composted or converted into biogas.
As in the case of category 1 materials, also UPPZ materials from category 2 can be used as fuel for combustion. Animal by-products of this category are also used in the production of derived products as defined in Art. 33 of the article of the Regulation referred to in the course of this article.
Category 3 material, due to the fact that it poses the lowest risk to humans and other animals, has a very wide range of applications. If it has not changed due to decomposition or spoilage, it is used to produce feed for farm animals other than fur animals and for the production of pet food (including raw food).
This animal by-product is also used as biogas or organic fertilizer, and if the material comes from crustaceans, it is used in accordance with rules set by the competent authorities, and the way it is used must prevent risks to human and animal health.
As in the case of UPPZ materials of the previous categories, also those assigned to category 3 may be used in the production of cosmetics or medical devices, provided that they are placed on the market under special conditions specified in Art. 34-36 of the regulation referred to in this article.
Third category material is also used in soil without prior processing, in the case of raw milk, colostrum and products derived therefrom, if the competent authority has considered that they do not pose a risk of spreading a disease communicable through these products to humans or animals. If Category 3 material acquires properties that result in it being defined as waste, it will be disposed of by incineration or co-incineration or processed and, after processing, it will be disposed of at an approved landfill.
In addition to the above-mentioned methods of managing UPPZ materials of all categories, the provisions [specifically Art. 17 of the cited regulation] also allow their use for exhibition purposes, artistic activities, diagnostic, educational or research purposes. However, this must take place under conditions that ensure the control of risks to human and animal health and with the provision that animal by-products will be used only for the purposes specified above and, if necessary, appropriately secured and transported to the place of origin.
Transport conditions for animal by-products
To be able to transport this type of materials, the company must apply for a veterinary number and for entry into the register of supervised entities. This is extremely important, because later a PIW inspector will be sent to the company to check whether the company meets all the requirements to be able to perform UPPZ transport, and his opinion will ultimately determine whether the company will obtain the appropriate authorizations.
Marking of vehicles and containers during UPPZ transport
Once the company is in the appropriate register and receives a veterinary number, it should ensure proper marking of vehicles intended for the transport of products of animal origin and the containers in which they will be stored during transport. Sanitary regulations regarding animal by-products not intended for human consumption indicate the following markings:
- "CAT 3 - not for human consumption"
- "CAT 2 – not for animal consumption" and if the Category 2 material is intended to be fed to animals listed in Art. 18 section 1 of Regulation (EC) No 1069/2009 in accordance with the conditions provided for or specified in this Article, the label should contain the inscription: "CAT 2 - for feeding ..." and supplemented by the name of the specific species of animals for which the material is intended to be fed
- "CAT 1 - for disposal only" (e.g. transport of UPPZ in the form of pet carcasses)
- for organic fertilizers and soil improvers: "organic fertilizers or soil improvers - do not graze livestock or use crops as feed crops for at least 21 days after application"
- in the case of manure and digestive tract contents, the inscription "manure" should be placed
- in the case of research and diagnostic samples - the inscription "for research and diagnostic purposes"
- in the case of commercial samples - the inscription "commercial sample not for human consumption"
- in the case of exhibition items - the inscription "display item not for human consumption"
However, the regulations do not specify how large the letters should be placed on boards or stickers when carrying out UPPZ transport. It is important that they are in a visible place.
Under what conditions should animal by-products be transported?
The vehicle in which animal by-products are to be transported must be dry, clean, free of foreign odors, and must be thoroughly cleaned after each transport. Containers used to store UPPZ during the transport of animal by-products must be properly secured and marked as specified above. Animal by-products should be transported at the optimal temperature to avoid hazards to future users. This requirement does not apply if the materials are to be processed within the next 24 hours.
UPPZ transport documentation
Each transport of animal by-products must be accompanied by a commercial document. For the transport of UPPZ materials in Poland, the document template is specified in the Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of June 16, 2020, amending the regulation of August 19, 2014, available at: http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20200001090/O/D20201090.pdf
This document should include information about:
- place, date and time of collection of animal by-products
- the sending company, carrier and buyer of the given UPPZ material,
- type, quantity and weight of by-products,
- the purpose for which animal waste is transported, along with a description of the transported material and its appropriate identification
It may also turn out that a health certificate will be required to transport a given UPPZ material (applies to situations when it is to be sent to a third country).
A document confirming that the company has acquired the right to transport animal by-products is also required.
To ensure that your transport is carried out in accordance with current legislation and to offset the risk of penalties, it is advisable to consult a company that will take care of everything comprehensively - from preparing the necessary documentation to assigning a veterinary number. Let us act on your behalf, so that you can devote the time you save to developing your business. We are at your service.